Blue economy encompasses ‘ocean-based industries (such as shipping, fishing, offshore wind and marine biotechnology), and also the natural assets and ecosystem services that the ocean provides (fish, shipping lanes, CO2 absorption and the like)’, and broader societal functions (wellbeing, health). Historical contingency and attitudes have seen the individual sectors retain their own planning agencies and 2030 targets under the umbrella of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals agenda, the reality is those goals cannot be attained without integration. Moreover, the same kind of unintended and detrimental consequences seen during industrialisation on land has not been avoided in the marine realm. A more integrated approach needs to be taken. Compartmentalisation (of equity/resources - at the disadvantage of most of the world’s population), which has often been the preferred default response on land simply isn’t possible in the ocean (given aquatic exchange and dispersion). Emphasis on reducing conflict (e.g. for space and access), creating new activities/technologies that leverage off the co-location and potentially greater community acceptance. There will also be a number of strategic trade-offs. For instance, activities that remove the pressure on coastal systems and their immediate users, while helping reduce the pressure on the provision of non-production ecosystem services provided by the local natural systems, such as storm protection and carbon sequestration. In a business as usual future, some livelihoods may not be sustained. The livelihoods that remain sustainable may inadvertently contribute to unsustainable futures for other livelihoods. For instance, poorly managed industries may lead to unsustainable fisheries or tourism industries.