Seafood plays an important role in food systems as a source of protein and micronutrients, particularly for Small Island Developing States and coastal Indigenous Peoples. Production of food from the sea has the potential to increase substantially through improved management of wild harvesting and increased mariculture. Seafood production, distribution and consumption is changing rapidly with evolving consumer demand, nutritional and product awareness and production technology. A thorough evaluation of the needs, potential impacts and solutions that align seafood production and consumption with the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is required. This paper uses a descriptive narrative approach to examine the anticipated global trends for seafood over the next ten years to identify key pathways that could shift the current trajectory to a more sustainable 2030. Key ‘drivers’ influencing the global seafood system are identified and used to construct a future scenario based on our current trajectory (Business-as-usual 2030). This scenario is described through evidence-based fictional perspectives demonstrating how the anticipated future might be experienced by people in different social, geographical and economic situations. Descriptive pathways and actions are then presented for a more sustainable future that strives towards achieving the SDGs as far as technically possible (More sustainable 2030). The key actions underpinning the pathways to a more sustainable 2030 will have different, often competing, drivers and will be appropriate for implementation at different scales by different actors. Prioritising actions that not only sustainably produce more seafood, but consider aspects of access and utilisation for all is essential.